Christopher Viot

Wellcome to my professional web page 


Research field and activities

Postal address, phone, fax, e-mail


Selected publications list here :  Liste  -  Some downloadable publications and technical documents: below on this page.

Research activities

Places : Bambari (Centrafrican Republic) 1987-1989, Caacupé (Paraguay) 1989-1991 & 2000-2004, Bouaké (Ivory Coast) 1992-1999, Montpellier (France) 2004-.. 

Breeding of cotton varieties

The aim has been selection and creation of varieties with balanced performances, but first of all well fitted to cropping systems of the small-holder farmers, along with satisfactory industrial characteristics (ginning, fibre quality).



Bienvenue sur ma page web !! 


Discipline et activités

Adresse, tél, fax, courriel


Liste de publications ici :  Liste  -  Quelques publications et documents techniques téléchargeables: plus bas sur cette page.

Activités de recherche

Lieux : Bambari (Rép. Centrafricaine), Caacupé (Paraguay), Bouaké (Côte d'Ivoire), Montpellier (France)

Sélection de variétés de coton

Le but a été la sélection de variétés équilibrées, avant tout adaptées aux conditions de culture des petits agriculteurs, et également performantes industriellement (égrenage, qualité de fibre).


Downloadable documents


Christopher Viot, 2019. Domestication and varietal diversification of Old World cultivated cottons ( Gossypium sp.) in the Antiquity. Revue d'ethnoécologie, 15 | 2019, Online since 30 June 2019. DOI : 10.4000/ethnoecologie.4404. Abstract: Textile use of the cotton fibres from the Old World species Gossypium arboreum (Tree Cotton) and G. herbaceum (Levant Cotton) started around eight thousand years ago and possibly earlier. During the third millennium before the present, cotton cultivation, textile use and trading developed strongly in many places of the Indian Subcontinent and the Near East, but the species involved are often undetermined. Gossypium arboreum and G. herbaceum are difficult to distinguish morphologically when dealing with archaeological remains. Many traditional varieties have been described for each of these two species; an evolution is apparent from perennial, rather primitive forms through to annual varieties and modern phenotypes, with adaptions to cultivation in diverse conditions, including cold climates and short summers. The present work examines which varieties could have been cultivated in the Antiquity and in which regions had cotton cultivation spread then. Some extant varieties are hypothesized as close to the cultivars of Antiquity. The geographic distribution of each species probably reflects the initial domestication region and the subsequent adaptations, particularly regarding climate. Recent progress on ancient DNA analysis should permit easier specific assignments of archaeological remains of cotton seeds, fibres, threads or fabrics.      

Early Cacao Use in the Upper Amazon of South America. Zarrillo Sonia, Gaikwad Nilesh, Lanaud Claire, Powis Terry, Viot Christopher, Lesur Isabelle, Fouet Olivier, Argout Xavier, Guichoux Erwan, Salin Franck, Solorzano Rey Loor, Bouchez Olivier, Vignes Hélène, Severts Patrick, Hurtado Julio, Yepez Alexandra, Grivetti Louis, Blake Michael, Valdez Francisco. 2019. . Vancouver : Society of Ethnobiology, Résumé, 1 p. Annual Conference of the Society of Ethnobiology. 42, Vancouver, Canada, 8 Mai 2019/11 Mai 2019.   

Volatile organic compounds: Plant natural defense mechanisms against herbivorous arthropods and an opportunity for plant breeding of cotton. Villamar Torres Ronald, Jazayeri Seyed Mehdi, Liuba-Delfini Gabriel, García Cruzaty Luz Cecilia, Viot Christopher. 2018. Scientia Agropecuaria, 9 (2) : 287-297. 

Los compuestos orgánicos volátiles, defensa natural del algodón Gossypium hirsutum mejorable gracias a la biotecnología. CIBB-BA-EO-061. Villamar R.O., Liu-Ba G.A., Legavre Thierry, Viot Christopher. 2016. In : Libro de memorias del III CIBB 2016: "Investigación y competitividad, claves para la producción". Escuela Superior Politécnica del Litoral. CIBB, ESPOL, AEBE. Guayaquil : CIBB, ESPOL, AEBE, 1. CIBB : Congreso Internacional de Biotecnología y Biodiversidad 2016. 3, Guayaquil, Équateur, 10 Octobre 2016/13 Octobre 2016.  

The use and domestication of Theobroma cacao during the mid-Holocene in the upper Amazon. Zarrillo Sonia, Gaikwad Nilesh, Lanaud Claire, Powis Terry, Viot Christopher, Lesur Isabelle, Fouet Olivier, Argout Xavier, Guichoux Erwan, Salin Franck, Loor Solorzano Rey Gaston, Bouchez Olivier, Vignes Hélène, Severts Patrick, Hurtado Julio, Yepez Alexandra, Grivetti Louis, Blake Michael, Valdez Francisco. 2018. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 2 : 1879-1888. 

Nuevas alternativas para dinamizar el mejoramiento del algodón de fibra extra-larga G. barbadense mediante análisis de asociación genética. Viot Christopher, Lazo Juan, Dessauw Dominique, Távara Arturo, Montoya Ysabel. 2012. Agro Enfoque (185) : 63-65. RESUMEN - La genética de asociación es una herramienta potente para el descubrimiento las relaciones entre las variaciones fenotípicas y los loci sobre los cromosomas. Los costos ahora bajos del genotipaje con marcadores del ADN y el acceso a las secuencias genómicas de las especies cultivadas de Gossypium permiten la identificación de variaciones genéticas potencialmente útiles dentro del germoplasma del algodón de fibra extra-larga Gossypium barbadense L.: genes para resistencias a estreses bióticos y abióticos, rendimientos superiores y adaptación al medio ambiente o sistemas de cultivación. Variedades de algodón mas atractivas y rentables para los agricultores podrían así mas fácilmente ser diseñadas, favoreciendo el desarrollo de la producción peruana de algodón. Los datos genéticos contribuirían para la estructuración del germoplasma de las colecciones de recursos genéticos y la optimización de su gestión.
Palabras-claves: algodón EL; germoplasma recurso; genética molecular; genes útiles.ABSTRACT - Association genetics is a powerful tool for uncovering links between traits and chromosomal loci. Nowadays' low costs of genotyping with DNA markers and access to recently published sequence data of the cultivated Gossypium species permit the identification of potentially useful genetic variations inside the extra-long staple cotton resource germplasm: genes for resistances to biotic and abiotic stress, higher yields and adaptation to environment or cultivation techniques. Cotton varieties more attractive and profitable to farmers could thus more easily be designed in order to develop the Peruvian cotton production. The genetic data would help to structure the gene banks germplasm, optimize its management and ensure its protection. Key-words: ELS cotton; resource germplasm; association genetics; useful genes.


Xavier Argout, Jerome Salse, Jean-Marc Aury, Mark J Guiltinan, Gaetan Droc, Jerome Gouzy, Mathilde Allegre, Cristian Chaparro, Thierry Legavre, Siela N Maximova, Michael Abrouk, Florent Murat, Olivier Fouet, Julie Poulain-, Manuel Ruiz, Yolande Roguet, Maguy Rodier-Goud, Jose Fernandes Barbosa-Neto, Francois Sabot, Dave Kudrna, Jetty Siva S Ammiraju, Stephan C Schuster, John E Carlson, Erika Sallet, Thomas Schiex, Anne Dievart, Melissa Kramer, Laura Gelley, Zi Shi, Aurélie Bérard, Christopher Viot, Michel Boccara, Ange Marie Risterucci, Valentin Guignon, Xavier Sabau, Michael J Axtell, Zhaorong Ma, Yufan Zhang, Spencer Brown, Mickael Bourge, Wolfgang Golser, Xiang Song, Didier Clement, Ronan Rivallan, Mathias Tahi, Joseph Moroh Akaza, Bertrand Pitollat, Karina Gramacho, Angélique D'Hont, Dominique Brunel, Diogenes Infante, Ismael Kebe, Pierre Costet, Rod Wing, W Richard McCombie, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Francis Quetier, Olivier Panaud, Patrick Wincker, Stephanie Bocs & Claire Lanaud. 2011. The genome of Theobroma cacao. Nature Genetics 43: 101-108 => We sequenced and assembled the draft genome of Theobroma cacao, an economically important tropical-fruit tree crop that is the source of chocolate. This assembly corresponds to 76% of the estimated genome size and contains almost all previously described genes, with 82% of these genes anchored on the 10 T. cacao chromosomes. Analysis of this sequence information highlighted specific expansion of some gene families during evolution, for example, flavonoid-related genes. It also provides a major source of candidate genes for T. cacao improvement. Based on the inferred paleohistory of the T. cacao genome, we propose an evolutionary scenario whereby the ten T. cacao chromosomes were shaped from an ancestor through eleven chromosome fusions.

Viot C., Jacobs J., Arioli T., Llewellyn D., Derijcker R., Claverie M., Lacape JM. 2009. Non-independence between markers on homoeologous chromosomes in an interspecific allopolyploid cotton RILs population. International Conference on Polyploidy, Hybridization and Biodiversity (ICPHB 2009), May 17-20, 2009, Saint-Malo - France, Program and Abstracts: p. 135.   Abstract: We report on evidence of interactions between markers on pairs of homoeologous chromosomes in a RIL population from the cross between allotetraploid cotton species Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense (140 lines at ~F7 stage, genotyped with 800 markers, assembled in a saturated map of 26 linkage groups). In aout half of the 13 homoeologous chromosome pairs, unexpectedly high linkage was displayed by markers from homoeolog chromosomes. Such linkage was not observed between chromosomes from non-homoeologous pairs. Gametic disequilibrium (GD) has been assessed pairwise between all markers. Positive GD is highly dominant between markers of homoeologous chromosomes. In positive GD, frequencies of Gh-Gb allelic combinations are very low, meanwhile in negative GD, there is uniform low frequency of Gb-Gb allelic combinations. These results support hypotheses of intergenomic incompatibility.

Cousino, J-C, Viot, C., Gonzalez, A., Gimenez, V., 2004. IAN 424 e IAN 425 dos nuevas variedades paraguayas de algodon. In : Conferencias y resumenes de trabajos presentados en el XIX Seminario panamericano de semillas, 12 al 14 de julio de 2004, Asuncion, Paraguay. Bogota, FELAS : p. 269. Abstract: IAN 424 and IAN 425, two new Paraguayan cotton cultivars. IAN 424 and IAN 425 are two new Paraguayan cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars of the Agriculture and Livestock Ministry of Paraguay. Selection used a mass-pedigree design and farmer-participative comparative variety tests. IAN 424 is well suited to mechanical harvesting, has high ginning outturn (41%) and fibre of good length and strength. IAN 425, rather high and vigorous, corresponds well to small farmers needs, has correct fibre outturn (40%) and high quality fibre, in particular considering length, strength and colour.

C. Viot, J.-C. Cousiño, A. González de Cousiño. 2004. Potencial de los ensayos varietales participativos para el mercado de las semillas de algodon en Paraguay. In: FELAS, APROSEMP, MAG/DISE, 2004, Conferencias y Resúmenes de trabajos presentados. XIX Seminario Panamericano de Semillas, 12-14 juillet 2004, Asunción, Paraguay: p. 180. Abstract: Potential of participative variety trials for cotton seeds management in Paraguay. An active participation of farmers to variety evaluation is possible with the methodology of participative trials. The potential interest concerning the management of cotton seeds is great, particularly in relation to small farmers whose opinion is difficult to know.

Christopher Viot & Juan-Carlos Cousiño. 2004. Variaciones del peso de las semillas del algodon y relacion con el porcentaje de fibra al desmote en base a datos de ensayos varietales en Paraguay. In: FELAS, APROSEMP, MAG/DISE, 2004, Conferencias y Resúmenes de trabajos presentados. XIX Seminario Panamericano de Semillas, 12-14 juillet 2004, Asunción, Paraguay: p. 182. Abstract: Variations of Cotton Seed Weight and Relationships with Ginning Outturn on basis of Data from Variety Trials in Paraguay The weight of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) seeds ("seed-index", SI) varies in relation to cultivation conditions and varieties, while the seed-index itself influences directly the fibre outturn (fibre percent, %F) in gins, in addition to its importance in connection with germinative aptitude. The variations of both characters, relative to variety and growing region of SI and %F, are studied on the basis of data from variety trials carried out in different regions of the cotton cultivation area of Paraguay.

Christopher Viot, Juan-Carlos Cousiño & Alicia González. 2003. Selección Participativa de Variedades de Algodón. In: EXPO 2003, 5-20 juillet 2003, Asunción, Paraguay. Abstract: Participative selection of cotton varieties In cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivation, breeding is a key factor for agronomic performance as well as for fibre quality. Participative methodologies may permit to improve the innovation processes, through a direct implication of the future users of the new technologies in the R&D activities. For genetic improvement of cotton in Paraguay, the main short-term goal is to help select new varieties that are very well accepted by farmers, thanks to variety trials where evaluation is conducted with farmers participation.

MARQUIE Catherine & Christopher VIOT (eds.), 2002. Actas del 1er Seminario sobre la Preservación de la Calidad de la Fibra de Algodón durante el Desmote Industrial en Paraguay, 25-28 de febrero de 2002, Caacupé y Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay. CIRAD-CA, Equipo ISCA, Embajada de Francia, C.C. 97, Asunción, Paraguay, 66 páginas.  Contents :

"Oficial Classing of Cotton Fibre" - Zulma Vidal de Caballero
"The Cotton Products Technology CIRAD Team" - Bruno Bachelier
"Seed Production and its Relationships with Cotton Fibre Quality" - Jose Paiva
"Cotton Fibre Characteristics HVI Measuring and Influence on Threads Quality" Jean-Paul Gourlot, Gerard Gawrysiak & Richard Frydrych
"Importance of Cotton Fibre Laboratory Trials" - Mario Leiva
"Why and How to Preserve Cotton Fibre Quality" - Catherine Marquie, Bruno Bachelier, Gerard Gawrysiak, Jean-Paul Gourlot & Christopher Viot
"Cotton Fibre Genetic Improvement with emphasis on Industrial Quality" Juan-Carlos Cousino
Documents for the Training Session

Summary : MARQUIE Catherine & Christopher VIOT (eds.). Acts of the 1st Workshop on Cotton Fibre Quality Preservation during Industrial Ginning in Paraguay. February 25-28, 2002, Caacupé-Coronel Oviedo, Paraguay. CIRAD Team, Asunción, Paraguay, 66 p. Abstract: This workshop was organized jointly and co-financed by the Agricultural Research Direction (DIA) of Paraguay, the Paraguayan Cotton Industry Board (CADELPA) and the French Centre for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research (CIRAD), with financial support from the French Embassy in Paraguay. Paraguayan cotton has premium quality and is much valued on the international market; preserving and improving its quality best guaranties to maintain its good quotation on the very competitive global fibre market.

It is thus essential to preserve the Paraguayan cotton quality; this quality-oriented strategy includes not only caring some of the fibre characteristics but rather an integrated management along the whole fibre processing, beginning before harvest and during all ginning phases. It must permit to keep good intrinsic fibre characteristics with low contaminants levels.

This workshop treated more particularly of cotton fibre quality preservation during ginning. Many factors will interact with ginning for what concerns the resulting fibre quality: variety, soil type and growing conditions, meteorology, harvesting conditions, humidity and contaminant contents. Simply put, fibre quality is best in the field at harvest time; during ginning (broadly considered from field through to expedition to spinning mills), operations must preserve at best these fibre characteristics and moreover constitute batches homogeneous in quality for commercialization.
To help thinking about quality during the ginning operations was the purpose of this workshop, organized by the Cotton Products Technology team of CIRAD-Montpellier, aimed at the ginning technicians of various Paraguayan cotton companies. The training included theoretical courses and practical demonstrations in the Coronel-Oviedo ginning plant from Bertrand Gayet's Oro Cuí Company.
Conferences by cotton specialists explained: cotton fibre classing principles (Zulma Vidal de Caballero, OFAT), classing instruments (Mario Leiva, INTN, Jean-Paul Gourlot, CIRAD), relationships between seed variety and fibre quality (Jose Paiva, DISE), goals and means to implement in order to preserve quality (Catherine Marquie, CIRAD) and finally breeding in relation to genetic factors of industrial quality (Juan-Carlos Cousino, DIA).

GOMEZ-BOGADO G. y C. VIOT (eds.), 2002. Actas de la VIII Reunión ALIDA, Asunción, Paraguay, 26-29 de noviembre de 2001. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganadería, Programa de Reactivación del Algodón, Asunción, Paraguay, 194 páginas.

Contents : 
Opening Speeches
Introductory Speech by the Coordinator of the VIII ALIDA Reunion, Cirilo J. Centurion
Opening Speech of his Excellence the Agriculture and Livestock Minister of Paraguay, Pedro Lino Morel
Wellcome Speech, Carlos Valderrama, ICAC Representant
Session 1 : "Production, Markets & Research", Moderator : Aldo Ricciardi
The Arduous Path towards Reactivation, P. L. Morel, Agriculture and Livestock Minister of Paraguay
Cotton in Argentina : Late Agricultural Campaign (2000-2001) and Perspectives, J. A. Poisson
Cotton Cultivation in Bolivia, J. Campero Rojas
An Attempt to Reactivate Cotton Production in Nicaragua, M. A. Vaughan
The Peruvian Cotton, F. Suarez
Synopsis of the Cotton Situation at Regional and Global Levels, F. A. Stiegwardt
Establishment of a Cotton Ginning School , I. Lopes Ferreira
Strategic Global Systematization (SET) for a Sustainable Cotton Production, M. A. Vaughan
People of Latin-America Cotton: Some Photographs of the VIII ALIDA Reunion
Session 2 : "Varieties & Seeds Market", Moderator : Mario A. Vaughan
Genetic Improvement of Cotton in Paraguay, J. C. Cousino
Varieties and Seeds Market in Brazil, L.F. Santos Filho & E. B. P. Quereza
Transgenic Cottons: Present Situation, M. Giband, C. Pannetier, H. Chaïr, B. Hau
Plant Variety Protection and UPOV, M. Labarta
Regulation of Introduction, Evaluation and Use of New Cultivars in Paraguay, J. A. Paiva
Evaluating Germinative Potential through Electric Conductivity, A. Montenegro & J. A. Poisson
Session 3 : "Farmers & Research", Moderator: Clotildo Rodas
Introduction of Session 3 Farmers and Research, C. Rodas
Technical Assistance provided by the Direction of Agricultural Extension to Cotton Cultivation in Paraguay, R. Rodriguez
Activities of a Cooperative Structure in Agricultural Development, F. Burgos
Problematics of Cotton Cultivation in Small Farms in Paraguay, A. Avalos, E. Caceres, F. Burgos, P. Arevalos, L. Lopez & C. Viot
Applying Participative Methodologies in Cotton Breeding in Paraguay, C. Viot & P. Arevalos
Synthesis and Conclusions of Session 3 Farmers and Research, P. Arevalos
Session 4 : "Integrated Pest Management", Moderator: Pierre Silvie
The Integrated Pest Management in Paraguay, V. Gomez
The Integrated Cotton Boll Weevil Management in Argentina, Brasil and Paraguay Project - CFC/ICAC/04, T. Stadler
Sustainable Management of Genetically Modified Cottons: Reflexions and Proposal of CIRAD Cotton Program, P. Silvie, H. Chaïr, et al.
Integrated Cotton Pests Management through Farmers Field Schools, F. Cano, V. Salinas, M. Arevalos, M. Ortiz , R. Benitez, E. Rojas & M. Franco
ALIDA Session, Moderador: Rafiq Chaudhry
Synthesis, Recommendations and Final Comments of the VIII ALIDA Reunion, V. M. Santander & C. J. Centurion
Closing Speech, R. Pedretti

Summary : GOMEZ-BOGADO G. & C. VIOT (eds.), 2002. Acts of the VIII ALIDA Reunion, Asuncion, Paraguay, November 26-29, 2001. Agriculture and Livestock Secretary, National Cotton Reactivation Program, Asuncion, Paraguay, 194 p.

This 8th Reunion of the ALIDA organization counted with delegates from 8 countries, jointly to ICAC executives and participants from french CIRAD ; financial support came from ICAC, local private companies and CIRAD. More than 20 communications were presented, about various aspects of cotton research ; the attendance counted 111 researchers.
In Paraguay, indicated Agriculture Minister Pedro Lino Morel, cotton is fundamental to incomes of 150,000 rural families, that is 50% of total Paraguayan farmers ; the present very low prices for raw fibre are the cause of serious difficulties and a big challenge to all levels of the Paraguayan cotton sector, from farmers through to industry and fibre exporters.
The fibre price crisis appears to result not from normal fluctuations but from market-distorting subsidies, direct or indirect, to the prices paid to farmers in some industrialized countries.
To reinforce their cotton sector, various answers to production cost and technical level upgrading are considered by different countries, including, e.g., ginning school (Isaura Lopes Ferreira in Brazil), integrated pest management (IPM), geographic information system (GIS), better technology adoption by farmers.
Variety breeding stays as strategic to improve cotton production; the private sector is gaining importance, offering in particular transgenic (genetically modified) cotton varieties. It is considered important that scientific studies guaranty the innocuity of these transgenic varieties, in order to prevent consumers' distrust and hazards for human health and environment.
The development of variety property rights, or obtentor's rights, appears as the adequate framework to secure and promote variety improvement and consequently better regional agroindustrial competitivity.
Diffusion of new technologies to farmers is considered critical, especially in countries where small farmers are dominant. The Paraguayan governmental extension service developed Tercerized Technical Units ; gender approach and private sector involvement were efficient in adoption of technologies of minimal tilling, direct sowing, and green manure. In one savings and loan cooperative company in the main cotton growing region of Paraguay, credits to farmers are conditional on, and proportional to, the adoption of improved technologies for : subsistence crops cultivation, small livestock breeding, and soil protection practices such as organic manure, green manure, level curves, which accelerated the adoption of these technologies.
Two Paraguayan smallholder farmers could explain their views about their problems and preferences as for solutions; they list the methodologies they adopted and are asking much for state's help to acquire better technicity.
A simultaneous application of the different methodologies constituent of the integrated pest management (IPM) is considered necessary to reduce the quantities of pesticides that contaminate innecessarily the environment.
The IPM Farmers Field School managed by Roque Benitez in Paraguay showed excellent results and was exemplary as to how to adapt and diffuse adequate methodologies to small farmers.
The results of the research on the entomofauna associated to cotton Boll Weevil (Trinational Project with financial support from Netherlands' CFC) should help much in fighting against the Boll Weevil.


Technical documents

"Notions de radioprotection pour la manipulation des radioéléments 32P et 33P dans les laboratoires de l'UMR AGAP". Christopher Viot, Donaldo Meynard, André Bouët. 10pp.

"Consignes d'utilisation des laboratoires P32 et P33". Christopher Viot. 12pp. 

"Amplification PCR de micro-satellites (SSR) avec marquage radioactif alpha-33P". Christopher Viot. 10pp.  

"Amplification PCR de microsatellites (SSR) avec marquage radioactif gamma-33P". Christopher Viot. 11pp. 

"Bleu-Formamide pour AFLP et microsatellites en gel de polyacrylamide". Christopher Viot. 4pp. 




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